# Computational Costs for Spectral Correlation Estimators

Let’s look at the computational costs for spectral-correlation analysis using the three main estimators I’ve previously described on the CSP Blog: the frequency-smoothing method (FSM), the time-smoothing method (TSM), and the strip spectral correlation analyzer (SSCA).

We’ll see that the FSM and TSM are the low-cost options when estimating the spectral correlation function for a few cycle frequencies and that the SSCA is the low-cost option when estimating the spectral correlation function for many cycle frequencies. That is, the TSM and FSM are good options for directed analysis using prior information (values of cycle frequencies) and the SSCA is a good option for exhaustive blind analysis, for which there is no prior information available.

# CSP Patent: Tunneling

My colleague Dr. Apurva Mody (of BAE Systems, IEEE 802.22, and the WhiteSpace Alliance) and I have received a patent on a CSP-related invention we call tunneling. The US Patent is 9,755,869 and you can read it here or download it here. We’ve got a journal paper in review and a 2013 MILCOM conference paper (My Papers [38]) that discuss and illustrate the involved ideas. I’m also working on a CSP Blog post on the topic.

Update December 28, 2017: Our Tunneling journal paper has been accepted for publication in the journal IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking. You can download the pre-publication version here.

# Resolution in Time, Frequency, and Cycle Frequency for CSP Estimators

In this post, we look at the ability of various CSP estimators to distinguish cycle frequencies, temporal changes in cyclostationarity, and spectral features. These abilities are quantified by the resolution properties of CSP estimators.

### Resolution Parameters in CSP: Preview

Consider performing some CSP estimation task, such as using the frequency-smoothing method, time-smoothing method, or strip spectral correlation analyzer method of estimating the spectral correlation function. The estimate employs $T$ seconds of data.

Then the temporal resolution $\Delta t$ of the estimate is approximately $T$, the cycle-frequency resolution $\Delta \alpha$ is about $1/T$, and the spectral resolution $\Delta f$ depends strongly on the particular estimator and its parameters. The resolution product $\Delta f \Delta t$ was discussed in this post. The fundamental result for the resolution product is that it must be very much larger than unity in order to obtain an SCF estimate with low variance.

# CSP Estimators: Cyclic Temporal Moments and Cumulants

In this post we discuss ways of estimating $n$-th order cyclic temporal moment and cumulant functions. Recall that for $n=2$, cyclic moments and cyclic cumulants are usually identical. They differ when the signal contains one or more finite-strength additive sine-wave components. In the common case when such components are absent (as in our recurring numerical example involving rectangular-pulse BPSK), they are equal and they are also equal to the conventional cyclic autocorrelation function provided the delay vector is chosen appropriately.

The more interesting case is when the order $n$ is greater than $2$. Most communication signal models possess odd-order moments and cumulants that are identically zero, so the first non-trivial order $n$ greater than $2$ is $4$. So our estimation task is to estimate $n$-th order temporal moment and cumulant functions for $n \ge 4$ using a sampled-data record of length $T$.

# CSP Blog Highlights

Welcome to the CSP Blog!

To help new readers, I’m supplying here links to the posts that have gotten the most attention over the lifetime of the Blog. Omitted from this list are the more esoteric topics as well as the posts that comment on the engineering literature.

You can see a pre-publication version of my latest CSP journal paper, on “tunneling“, here.

### What is Cyclostationarity?

Introductory post.

Spectral correlation.

Cyclic autocorrelation.

Higher-order cyclostationarity.

### Can I Get Help with my CSP Work Through the CSP Blog?

General rules for getting help.

Second-order estimator development guide.

### What is Higher-Order Cyclostationarity and What are Cyclic Cumulants?

Introduction to higher-order cyclostationarity.

Cyclic cumulants and cyclic moments.

Optional conjugations in higher-order parameters.

The cyclic polyspectrum.

### How do You Estimate the Parameters of Second-Order Cyclostationarity?

The frequency-smoothing method for spectral correlation estimation, one cycle frequency at a time.

The time-smoothing method for spectral correlation estimation, one cycle frequency at a time.

Exhaustive efficient spectral correlation estimation, all cycle frequencies.

Spectral coherence and blind estimation of significant cycle frequencies.

# Automatic Spectral Segmentation

In this post, I discuss a signal-processing algorithm that has almost nothing to do with cyclostationary signal processing. Almost. The topic is automated spectral segmentation, which I also call band-of-interest (BOI) detection. When attempting to perform automatic radio-frequency scene analysis (RFSA), we may be confronted with a data block that contains multiple signals in a large number of distinct frequency subbands. Moreover, these signals may be turning on an off within the data block. To apply our cyclostationary signal processing tools effectively, we would like to isolate these signals in time and frequency to the greatest extent possible using linear time-invariant filtering (for separating in the frequency dimension) and time-gating (for separating in the time dimension). Then the isolated signal components can be processed serially.

It is very important to remember that even perfect spectral and temporal segmentation will not solve the cochannel-signal problem. It is perfectly possible that an isolated subband will contain more that one cochannel signal.

The basics of my BOI-detection approach are published in a 2007 conference paper (My Papers [32]). I’ll describe this basic approach, illustrate it with examples relevant to RFSA, and also provide a few extensions of interest, including one that relates to cyclostationary signal processing.

# More on Pure and Impure Sine Waves

Remember when we derived the cumulant as the solution to the pure $n$th-order sine-wave problem? It sounded good at the time, I hope. But here I describe a curious special case where the interpretation of the cumulant as the pure component of a nonlinearly generated sine wave seems to break down.