The cyclostationarity of frequency-shift-keyed signals depends strongly on the way the carrier phase evolves over time. Many distinct cycle-frequency patterns and spectral correlation shapes are possible.
Let’s get back to basics by looking at a large class of signals known as frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) signals. We will leave to the side, for the most part, the very large class of signals that goes by the name of continuous-phase modulation (CPM), which includes continuous-phase FSK (CPFSK), MSK, GMSK, and many more (The Literature [R188]-[R190]). Those are treated in My Papers , and in a future CSP Blog post.
Here we want to look at more conventional forms of FSK. These signal types don’t necessarily have a continuous phase function. They are generally easier to demodulate and are more robust to noise and interference than the more complicated CPM signal types, but generally have much lower spectral efficiency. They are like the rectangular-pulse PSK of the FSK/CPM world. But they are still used.
Continue reading “Cyclostationarity of Frequency-Shift-Keyed Signals”
Let’s apply some of our Signal Processing ToolKit tools to a problem in forensic signal processing!
Previous SPTK Post: The Sampling Theorem Next SPTK Post: Resampling in MATLAB
No, not that prisoner’s dilemma. The dilemma of a prisoner that claims, steadfastly, innocence. Even in the face of strong evidence and a fair jury trial.
In this Signal Processing ToolKit cul-de-sac of a post, we’ll look into a signal-processing adventure involving a digital sting recording and a claim of evidence tampering. We’ll be able to use some of our SPTK tools to investigate a real-world data record that might, just might, have been tampered with. (But most probably not!)
Continue reading “SPTK: Echo Detection and the Prisoner’s Dilemma”
How can we train a neural network to make use of both IQ data samples and CSP features in the context of weak-signal detection?
I’ve been working with some colleagues at Northeastern University (NEU) in Boston, MA, on ways to combine CSP with machine learning. The work I’m doing with Old Dominion University is focused on basic modulation recognition using neural networks and, in particular, the generalization (dataset-shift) problem that is pervasive in deep learning with convolution neural networks. In contrast, the NEU work is focused on specific signal detection and classification problems and looks at how to use multiple disparate data types as inputs to neural-networks; inputs such as complex-valued samples (IQ data) as well as carefully selected components of spectral correlation and spectral coherence surfaces.
My NEU colleagues and I will be publishing a rather lengthy conference paper on a new multi-input-data neural-network approach called ICARUS at InfoCom 2023 this May (My Papers ). You can get a copy of the pre-publication version here or on arxiv.org.
Continue reading “ICARUS: More on Attempts to Merge IQ Data with Extracted-Feature Data in Machine Learning”
And now for something completely different …
Let’s take an excursion outside of “Understanding and Using the Statistics of Communication Signals” by looking at a naturally occurring signal: the human genome.
Continue reading “Desultory CSP: The Human-Genome Edition”
The basics of how to convert a continuous-time signal into a discrete-time signal without losing information in the process. Plus, how the choice of sampling rate influences CSP.
Previous SPTK Post: Random Processes Next SPTK Post: Echo Detection
In this Signal Processing ToolKit post we take a close look at the basic sampling theorem used daily by signal-processing engineers. Application of the sampling theorem is a way to choose a sampling rate for converting an analog continuous-time signal to a digital discrete-time signal. The former is ubiquitous in the physical world–for example all the radio-frequency signals whizzing around in the air and through your body right now. The latter is ubiquitous in the computing-device world–for example all those digital-audio files on your
Discman Itunes Ipod DVD Smartphone Cloud Neuralink Singularity.
So how are those physical real-world analog signals converted to convenient lists of finite-precision numbers that we can apply arithmetic to? For that’s all [digital or cyclostationary] signal processing is at bottom: arithmetic. You might know the basic rule-of-thumb for choosing a sampling rate: Make sure it is at least twice as big as the largest frequency component in the analog signal undergoing the sampling. But why, exactly, and what does ‘largest frequency component’ mean?
Continue reading “SPTK: Sampling and The Sampling Theorem”
Does the use of ‘total SNR’ mislead when the fractional bandwidth is very small? What constitutes ‘weak-signal processing?’
Or maybe “Comments on” here should be “Questions on.”
In a recent paper in EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing (The Literature [R165]), the authors tackle the problem of machine-learning-based modulation recognition for highly oversampled rectangular-pulse digital signals. They don’t use the DeepSig datasets (one, two, three, four), but their dataset description and use of ‘signal-to-noise ratio’ leaves a lot to be desired. Let’s take a brief look. See if you agree with me that the touting of their results as evidence that they can reliably classify signals with ‘SNRs of dB’ is unwarranted and misleading.
Continue reading “The Signal-Processing Equivalent of Resume-Padding? Comments on “A Robust Modulation Classification Method Using Convolutional Neural Networks” by S. Zhou et al.”
In signal processing, and in CSP, we often have to convert real-valued data into complex-valued data and vice versa. Real-valued data is in the real world, but complex-valued data is easier to process due to the use of a substantially lower sampling rate.
Previous SPTK Post: The Moving-Average Filter Next SPTK Post: Random Variables
In this Signal-Processing Toolkit post, we review the signal-processing steps needed to convert a real-valued sampled-data bandpass signal to a complex-valued sampled-data lowpass signal. The former can arise from sampling a signal that has been downconverted from its radio-frequency spectral band to a much lower intermediate-frequency spectral band. So we want to convert such data to complex samples at zero frequency (‘complex baseband’) so we can decimate them and thereby match the sample rate to the signal’s baseband bandwidth. Subsequent signal-processing algorithms (including CSP of course) can then operate on the relatively low-rate complex-envelope data, which is beneficial because the same number of seconds of data can be processed using fewer samples, and computational cost is determined by the number of samples, not the number of seconds.
Continue reading “SPTK: The Analytic Signal and Complex Envelope”
More real-world data files from SigIDWiki.com. The range of spectral correlation function types exhibited by man-made RF signals is vast.
Let’s take a brief look at the cyclostationarity of a captured DMR signal. It’s more complicated than one might think.
In this post I look at the cyclostationarity of a digital mobile radio (DMR) signal empirically. That is, I have a captured DMR signal from sigidwiki.com, and I apply blind CSP to it to determine its cycle frequencies and spectral correlation function. The signal is arranged in frames or slots, with gaps between successive slots, so there is the chance that we’ll see cyclostationarity due to the on-burst (or on-frame) signaling and cyclostationarity due to the framing itself.
Continue reading “Cyclostationarity of DMR Signals”
Ideal filters have rectangular or unit-step-like transfer functions and so are not physical. But they permit much insight into the analysis and design of real-world linear systems.
Previous SPTK Post: Convolution Next SPTK Post: The Moving-Average Filter
We continue with our non-CSP signal-processing tool-kit series with this post on ideal filtering. Ideal filters are those filters with transfer functions that are rectangular, step-function-like, or combinations of rectangles and step functions.
Continue reading “SPTK: Ideal Filters”
Another post-publication review of a paper that is weak on the ‘RF’ in RF machine learning.
Let’s take a look at a recently published paper (The Literature [R148]) on machine-learning-based modulation-recognition to get a data point on how some electrical engineers–these are more on the side of computer science I believe–use mathematics when they turn to radio-frequency problems. You can guess it isn’t pretty, and that I’m not here to exalt their acumen.
Continue reading “Comments on “Deep Neural Network Feature Designs for RF Data-Driven Wireless Device Classification,” by B. Hamdaoui et al”
What happens when a cyclostationary time-series is treated as if it were stationary?
In this post let’s consider the difference between modeling a communication signal as stationary or as cyclostationary.
There are two contexts for this kind of issue. The first is when someone recognizes that a particular signal model is cyclostationary, and then takes some action to render it stationary (sometimes called ‘stationarizing the signal’). They then proceed with their analysis or algorithm development using the stationary signal model. The second context is when someone applies stationary-signal processing to a cyclostationary signal model, either without knowing that the signal is cyclostationary, or perhaps knowing but not caring.
At the center of this topic is the difference between the mathematical object known as a random process (or stochastic process) and the mathematical object that is a single infinite-time function (or signal or time-series).
A related paper is The Literature [R68], which discusses the pitfalls of applying tools meant for stationary signals to the samples of cyclostationary signals.
Continue reading “Stationary Signal Models Versus Cyclostationary Signal Models”
A crucial tool for developing the temporal parameters of CSP.
Previous SPTK Post: Signal Representations Next SPTK Post: The Fourier Transform
This installment of the Signal Processing Toolkit shows how the Fourier series arises from a consideration of representing arbitrary signals as vectors in a signal space. We also provide several examples of Fourier-series calculations, interpret the Fourier series, and discuss its relevance to cyclostationary signal processing.
Continue reading “SPTK: The Fourier Series”
Let’s talk about ambiguity and correlation. The ambiguity function is a core component of radar signal processing practice and theory. The autocorrelation function and the cyclic autocorrelation function, are key elements of generic signal processing and cyclostationary signal processing, respectively. Ambiguity and correlation both apply a quadratic functional to the data or signal of interest, and they both weight that quadratic functional by a complex exponential (sine wave) prior to integration or summation.
Are they the same thing? Well, my answer is both yes and no.
Continue reading “The Ambiguity Function and the Cyclic Autocorrelation Function: Are They the Same Thing?”
There are some situations in which the spectral correlation function is not the preferred measure of (second-order) cyclostationarity. In these situations, the cyclic autocorrelation (non-conjugate and conjugate versions) may be much simpler to estimate and work with in terms of detector, classifier, and estimator structures. So in this post, I’m going to provide surface plots of the cyclic autocorrelation for each of the signals in the spectral correlation gallery post. The exceptions are those signals I called feature-rich in the spectral correlation gallery post, such as DSSS, LTE, and radar. Recall that such signals possess a large number of cycle frequencies, and plotting their three-dimensional spectral correlation surface is not helpful as it is difficult to interpret with the human eye. So for the cycle-frequency patterns of feature-rich signals, we’ll rely on the stem-style (cyclic-domain profile) plots that I used in the spectral correlation gallery post.
Continue reading “A Gallery of Cyclic Correlations”
An alternative to the strip spectral correlation analyzer.
Let’s look at another spectral correlation function estimator: the FFT Accumulation Method (FAM). This estimator is in the time-smoothing category, is exhaustive in that it is designed to compute estimates of the spectral correlation function over its entire principal domain, and is efficient, so that it is a competitor to the Strip Spectral Correlation Analyzer (SSCA) method. I implemented my version of the FAM by using the paper by Roberts et al (The Literature [R4]). If you follow the equations closely, you can successfully implement the estimator from that paper. The tricky part, as with the SSCA, is correctly associating the outputs of the coded equations to their proper values.
Continue reading “CSP Estimators: The FFT Accumulation Method”
Reconsidering my first attempt at teaching a machine the Fourier transform with the help of a CSP Blog reader. Also, the Fourier transform is viewed by Machine Learners as an input data representation, and that representation matters.
I first considered whether a machine (neural network) could learn the (64-point, complex-valued) Fourier transform in this post. I used MATLAB’s Neural Network Toolbox and I failed to get good learning results because I did not properly set the machine’s hyperparameters. A kind reader named Vito Dantona provided a comment to that original post that contained good hyperparameter selections, and I’m going to report the new results here in this post.
Since the Fourier transform is linear, the machine should be set up to do linear processing. It can’t just figure that out for itself. Once I used Vito’s suggested hyperparameters to force the machine to be linear, the results became much better:
Continue reading “‘Can a Machine Learn the Fourier Transform?’ Redux, Plus Relevant Comments on a Machine-Learning Paper by M. Kulin et al.”
Tunneling == Purposeful severe undersampling of wideband communication signals. If some of the cyclostationarity property remains, we can exploit it at a lower cost.
My colleague Dr. Apurva Mody (of
BAE Systems, AiRANACULUS, IEEE 802.22, and the WhiteSpace Alliance) and I have received a patent on a CSP-related invention we call tunneling. The US Patent is 9,755,869 and you can read it here or download it here. We’ve got a journal paper in review and a 2013 MILCOM conference paper (My Papers ) that discuss and illustrate the involved ideas. I’m also working on a CSP Blog post on the topic.
Update December 28, 2017: Our Tunneling journal paper has been accepted for publication in the journal IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking. You can download the pre-publication version here.
Continue reading “CSP Patent: Tunneling”
Radio-frequency scene analysis is much more complex than modulation recognition. A good first step is to blindly identify the frequency intervals for which significant non-noise energy exists.
In this post, I discuss a signal-processing algorithm that has almost nothing to do with cyclostationary signal processing (CSP). Almost. The topic is automatic spectral segmentation, which I also call band-of-interest (BOI) detection. When attempting to perform automatic radio-frequency scene analysis (RFSA), we may be confronted with a data block that contains multiple signals in a number of distinct frequency subbands. Moreover, these signals may be turning on and off within the data block. To apply our cyclostationary signal processing tools effectively, we would like to isolate these signals in time and frequency to the greatest extent possible using linear time-invariant filtering (for separating in the frequency dimension) and time-gating (for separating in the time dimension). Then the isolated signal components can be processed serially using CSP.
It is very important to remember that even perfect spectral and temporal segmentation will not solve the cochannel-signal problem. It is perfectly possible that an isolated subband will contain more than one cochannel signal.
The basics of my BOI-detection approach are published in a 2007 conference paper (My Papers ). I’ll describe this basic approach, illustrate it with examples relevant to RFSA, and also provide a few extensions of interest, including one that relates to cyclostationary signal processing.
Continue reading “Automatic Spectral Segmentation”
Spread-spectrum signals are used to enable shared-bandwidth communication systems (CDMA), precision position estimation (GPS), and secure wireless data transmission.
In this post we look at direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) signals, which can be usefully modeled as a kind of PSK signal. DSSS signals are used in a variety of real-world situations, including the familiar CDMA and WCDMA signals, covert signaling, and GPS. My colleague Antonio Napolitano has done some work on a large class of DSSS signals (The Literature [R11, R17, R95]), resulting in formulas for their spectral correlation functions, and I’ve made some remarks about their cyclostationary properties myself here and there (My Papers ).
A good thing, from the point of view of modulation recognition, about DSSS signals is that they are easily distinguished from other PSK and QAM signals by their spectral correlation functions. Whereas most PSK/QAM signals have only a single non-conjugate cycle frequency, and no conjugate cycle frequencies, DSSS signals have many non-conjugate cycle frequencies and in some cases also have many conjugate cycle frequencies.
Continue reading “Cyclostationarity of Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Signals”